Everything about Tongue

The tongue is a muscular organ (Voluntary skeletal muscle).

Functions :
♦ Taste
♦ Speech
♦ Chewing
♦ Deglutition
♦ Cleansing of mouth

Parts :
👉 Root
👉 Tip
👉 Body

Body of the tongue:
Two surfaces:
♠ Upper curved surface (Dorsum)
♠ Inferior surface

Dorsum of tongue consists of three parts
💢 Oral or Papillary part (Anterior 2/3th)
💢 Pharyngeal or Lymphoid part (Posterior 1/3th)
💢 Posterior most part

Some Special parts of tongue :
👅 Sulcus Terminalis: V shaped groove between oral & pharyngeal part
👅 Foramen Caecum: Two limbs of Sulcus Terminalis
👅 Folliate Papillae: Four to five vertical folds in front of Palatoglossal arch
👅 Frenulum Linguae: Median fold of inferior surface
👅Vallecula: depression on each side of median glossoepiglottic fold

👅 There are two deep lingual veins on each side of Frenulum Linguae & two Plica Fimbriata on each side of deep lingual veins.

🔥 Papillae: (Only anterior 2/3th)
💢 Circumvallate or Vallate Papillae
💢 Fungiform Papillae
💢 Filiform Papillae
💢 Folliate Papillae

🔥 Muscles :
Four Intrinsics
👉 Superior Longitudinal
👉 Inferior Longitudinal
👉 Transverse
👉 Vertical

Four Extrinsics
👉 Palatoglossus
👉 Styloglossus
👉 Genioglossus
👉 Hyoglossus

🔥 Artery Supply :
♣ Lingual artery, branch of External Carotid artery
♣ Tonsilar artery, branch of facial artery

🔥 Venous Drainage:
♣ Deep lingual vein
♣ Two venae comitantes accompany the lingual artery
♣ One venae comitantes accompany the hypoglossal nerve

🔥 Lymphatic drainage:
♦Tip by the Submental node
♦ Anterior 2/3th by Submandibular node
♦ Posterior 1/3th & Posterior most part by upper deep cervical node
♦ All nodes drain into Jugulo-omohyoid nodes.

🔥 Nerve Supply:
👉 Motor: All muscles are supplied by Hypoglossal nerve except Palatoglossus, which is supplied by Accessory nerve
👉 Sensory:
💢 Anterior 2/3th is supplied by Lingual nerve (General Sensation) & Chorda Tympani (Taste Sensation)
💢 Posterior 1/3th is supplied by Glossopharyngeal nerve
💢 Posterior most part is supplied by Vagus nerve

🔥 Taste pathway:
(Chorda Tympani + Glossopharyngeal nerve + Vagus nerve) ——-> Tractus Solitarius ——-> Solitario-thalamic tract ——-> Postero ventromedial nucleus of thalamus ——-> Lowest part of post central gyrus for taste sensation.

Reference :
BD Chaurasia’s Human Anatomy, Seventh edition
A.K. Datta Essentials of Human Anatomy, Tenth edition

Platform academic /
Md Fahim Montasir
Rangamati Medical College
Session : 2018-19

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