Let’s know about Endocrine Glands & Hormones

প্রথমেই আমরা জেনে নেই Endocrine gland কাকে বলে?
The ductless glands which synthesize hormone and secrets them into circulation.

Endocrine Glands এ কি কি আছে?

From top to bottom –

  1. Endocrine part of hypothalamus
  2. Pituitary gland
  3. Thyroid & Parathyroid gland
  4. Islet’s of Langerhans of pancreas
  5. Adrenal / Suprarenal gland
  6. Testis in case of Male
  7. Ovary in case of Female
  8. Placenta in case of Pregnant Female

এবার আমরা জানব Hormone কাকে বলে?

Hormone is a chemical substance that is secreted into the internal body fluid by one cell or a group of cell and has a physiological control effect on the other cells of the body.

Hormone এর Classification কি?
Site of Action অনুসারে ৩ প্রকার।

  1. Local Hormones- Act locally near the site of secretion
    Ex- gastrin, secretin, CCK etc.
  2. General Hormones- Secreted by a definite endocrine gland and act on distant cells
    Ex- Growth hormone, Thyroid hormone, Insulin etc
  3. Tropic Hormones- Specialized type of general hormones secreted by one endocrine gland & acts on other endocrine glands to control their secretions
    Ex- Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Thyroid stimulating hormone, Leutinizing Hormone etc

Chemical Nature অনুসারে ৩ প্রকার।

  1. Steroid Hormone
    a.Adrenocortical Hormone
    Ex- Aldosterone,Cortisol
    b. Sex Hormone
    Ex- Testoteron,Estrogen, Progesteron.
    c. Active Vitamin D
    Ex- Calciterol
  2. Peptide Hormone
    a. Hormones of anterior and posterior Pituitary Gland (GH, ADH, Prolactin etc)
    b. Hormones of Pancreas (Insulin, Glucagon)
    c. Hormones of Parathyroid Gland (Parathyroid Hormone)
  3. Derivatives of Amino Acid
    a.Thyroid Hormone (T3, T4)
    b. Adrenal Medullary Hormone (Epinephrin, Norepinephrin)

কোন কোন Gland থেকে কি কি Hormone আসে?

  1. Hypothalamus
    a. Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
    b. Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
    c. Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
    d. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
    e. Growth Hormone Inhibitory Hormone
    f. Prolactin Inhibitory Hormone.
  2. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    a. Growth Hormone
    b.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    c. Leutinizing Hormone
    d. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
    e. Follicle Stimulating Hormone
    f. Prolactin.
  3. Posterior Pituitary Gland
    a. ADH
    b. Oxytocin
  4. Thyroid Gland
    a. Follicular cells (T3, T4)
    b.Parafollicular cells (Calcitonin)
  5. Islet’s of Lengerhans
    a. Alpha Cell (Glucagon)
    b. Beta Cell (Insulin)
    c. Delta Cell (Somastostatin)
    d. F/PP Cell (Pancreatic Polypeptide)
  6. Adrenal Cortex
    a. Cells of Zona Glomerulosa (15%)
    b.Cells of Zona Fasiculata (50%)
    c. Cells of Zona Reticularis (7%)
  7. Adrenal Medulla
    a. Catecholamines
    ◑ Epi nephrine (80%)
    ◑ Nor epinephrine (20%)
    ◑ Dopamine
  8. Testis
    a. Testosterone
  9. Ovary
    a. Estrogen
    b. Progesteron
  10. Placenta
    a. Human Choronic Gonadotropin
    b. Estrogen
    c. Progesteron

সবশেষে আমরা জানব, Clinical Condition associated with Hypo secretion & Hyper secretion of each Endocrine Gland।

  1. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    a. Hypo secretion এ Pituitary Dwarfism।
    b. Hyper secretion এ Gigantism।
  2. Posterior Pituitary Gland
    a. Hypo secretion এ Diabetes Insipidus।
  3. Thyroid Gland
    a. Hypo secretion এ children এ Cretinism & Adult এ Myxedema।
    b. Hyper secretion এ Grave’s Disease।
  4. Pancreas (Insulin)
    a. Hypo secretion এ Diabetes Mellitus।
    b. Hyper secretion এ Hyperinsulinism।
  5. Adrenal Gland
    a. Hypo secretion এ Addison’s Disease
    b. Hyper secretion এ Cushing Syndrome।

Hasibul Hasan Lipu
Colonel Malek Medical College

Platform Academic Division / Sadia Afrin Ivy

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